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Information about succulent feed beets from A to Z

 Information about succulent feed beets from A to Z



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Fodder beets play an important role in animal husbandry. This juicy root vegetable and its tops have a good taste and make up a significant share in the diet of cattle, primarily dairy cattle, sheep, pigs, rabbits and other animals in the cold season.

The introduction of juicy food into the diet of animals increases the digestibility and digestion of dry feed, and the low sugar content does not greatly limit its consumption by animals, since it does not harm their health. This article contains all the recommendations on how to grow and harvest a large crop.

Description

What kind of vegetable is this? Fodder beet is an industrial crop, a kind of common root beet and belongs to the Amaranth family, the Marevs subfamily, the Beet tribe (group). It is in the south-west of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, as it is often called - beetle or beetle.

Biological features of a plant and its photography

Check out the biological features below that describe which root crop is called fodder, and see a photo showing what the plant looks like.

Beetroot is a biennial plant, therefore, in the first year of life, it gives a large thick root up to 20 cm long and a lush rosette of green and reddish heart-shaped leaves up to a meter high. In the second year of life, leafy flower-stalks with paniculate inflorescences grow, seeds ripen in them, with which it further reproduces.

Reference! Nutritional value is possessed by such plant parts as thick roots and fresh tops, which are still harvested for silage.

Root crops have a variety of shapes:

  1. cylindrical;
  2. saccular;
  3. oval-conical;
  4. spherical.

Their mass is on average from 0.5 to 2.3 kg, coloration can vary greatly, such as:

  • pink;
  • red;
  • yellow;
  • greenish white;
  • purple;
  • orange.

Root yield per hectare

The value of the yield of the root crop is highly dependent on the place of cultivation. The best harvests come from warm regions. A good indicator here is considered to be a yield of 700-800 centners per hectare, but some producers manage to grow even 1,300 centners per hectare (weave).

Breeding history

Wild beets have been known to the people of the Mediterranean as a vegetable and medicinal plant for about 4 thousand years. By the beginning of the new era, cultivated plants of common beet appeared. The inhabitants of Russia have been using them since the X century, and the Europeans since the XIII. In Germany, in the 16th century, there was a differentiation into table and fodder beets. The forage form spread throughout Europe in the 18th century, and by the 20th - all over the world.

Interesting Facts

  • A widespread source of sugar - sugar beet, was obtained from feed in the 18th century thanks to the work of German breeders, when it became clear that sugar is contained not only in sugar cane, but also in beets.
  • The Romans used it as an aphrodisiac and a medicinal plant.
  • The peoples of the Balkans and Eastern Europe ate beets to prevent the spread of medieval plague epidemics.
  • In Russia, it was believed that beets give strength to heroes, and women of fashion blushed her cheeks.

What is the difference between this vegetable and other types?

Fodder beet roots contain significantly more fiber and dietary fiber and less sugar. For a person, it is not of interest for cooking, since other species are more tasty, therefore, for personal use, they usually do not grow it on a personal plot. Comparison of three types of beets: sugar, table and fodder can be found in a separate material.

Advantages and disadvantages

Advantages:

  • a valuable nutritious product for animals, helping to improve their digestion;
  • both root crops and tops, including silage, are used as food for animals;
  • has a high yield and the prospect of increasing productivity;
  • its cultivation increases soil fertility, its biological activity, improves agrophysical indicators, and reduces weed infestation of fields.
  • stored for a long time;

Disadvantages:

  • relatively poor in protein;
  • when feeding dairy cows over 40 kg per day, the fat content of milk decreases and its taste worsens;
  • the need to wash vegetables so as not to cause disease in animals;
  • the need to prepare vegetables immediately before feeding: chop small root crops so that animals cannot choke, for other animals it is necessary to boil or steam.

Chemical composition

One kilogram of root vegetable contains:

  • 0.12 feed units, which corresponds to the nutritional value of 120 g of seed oats;
  • water 80-88%;
  • dry matter 9-14%;
  • fiber 1.2%;
  • fat 0.15%;
  • sugar 6%;
  • digestible protein 0.9%.

Attention! The root vegetable contains a lot of easily digestible carbohydrates, valuable amino acids, pectin substances, vitamins, potassium and other minerals are present. The foliage also has enough nutrients, vitamins, organic acids and minerals, and it contains twice as much protein as root vegetables.

Application

How does a person use a vegetable? It is used in animal husbandry for feeding animals, especially with a silage type of feeding. There are a lot of alkaline minerals in beets, which has a positive effect on reducing the increased acidity of the stomach, arising from the acids contained in the silage. The root crop itself is a valuable feed in animal husbandry. Beets are fed to cattle, pigs, sheep, rabbits and other animals.

Where is it grown?

Fodder beets are grown in many parts of the world: in Europe, Asia, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, Africa. Culture is widespread in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine. Where is the root crop grown in Russia? The best crops are obtained in the southern part of the country.

Varieties

"Ursus poly"

Fodder semi-sugar multi-sprout beet of Polish selection. A smooth orange-yellow root vegetable weighing about 6 kg, cylindrical in shape, with juicy white flesh, less than half submerged in the ground, which makes it easier to harvest. The vegetable is well stored, has a yield of up to 1200 kg / ha. Resistant to cercospora and cornea.

"Poly record"

Red smooth multi-sprout cylindrical root crop, weighing about 5 kg. A variety of Polish selection. The Record Poly variety has a high yield of up to 1300 c / ha, especially on fertile soils. Vegetables are submerged in the ground by no more than 40%, which contributes to less pollution and easy harvesting of root crops. Resistant to flowers.

"Centaur poly"

A multi-sprout semi-sugar variety from Polish breeders. An oval-shaped white root vegetable weighs up to 2.7 kg. It has a short growing season of 145-160 days. Not picky about the composition of the soil, drought resistant. Although it is submerged in the soil by 60%, it is not heavily contaminated due to its shallow root groove. Shows resistance to shooters and cercopoposis, well stored.

The best varieties

It is difficult to single out the best variety, but it can be said that the following names are currently most popular among farmers:

  • "Centaur poly";
  • Eckendorf yellow;
  • "Oberndorf red";
  • "Fret".

Fact! The varieties "tsentaur poly", "eckendorf yellow", "oberndorf red", "lada" attract high productivity, mainly low immersion in the soil, a relatively short growing season, undemanding soil fertility, highly nutritious juicy white pulp of root crops.

Step-by-step instructions for planting seeds and caring for a vegetable

Growing agrotechnics for large root crops

The culture is moderately demanding and unpretentious. The main conditions for obtaining a good harvest are:

  1. proper preparation of soil and seeds;
  2. timely watering;
  3. loosening;
  4. feeding plants.

Where and for how much can you buy sowing material?

Fodder beet seeds in Moscow and St. Petersburg can be purchased on message boards and online stores on average at a price of 5-20 rubles per 10 grams, for example:

  • http://semena-tut.ru.
  • http://semena-zakaz.ru.
  • http://agrobazar.ru.
  • http://doska.zol.ru.
  • http://flagma.ru and others.

When to sow?

End of March - mid-April, provided that the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm is not less than 5-8 ° C.

Seat selection

A good harvest can be obtained by sowing beets after annual herbaceous plants, especially after wheat, rye, corn, legumes and vegetables.

What should be the soil?

The best soil for culture is black earth and floodplain soil. Swampy soils, sandy and stony for a vegetable are not suitable. The land should be cleared of weeds and dug up, fertilized with compost or ash in the fall, and before sowing - with nitroammophos and potash fertilizers.

Landing

How to plant a vegetable? Before planting in open ground, it is advisable to disinfect the seeds, for example, soak them in a solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour, treat them with stimulants, and dry them properly. Dry seeds should be planted in moist soil. The seeding rate of seeds is 15 kg per 1 ha. It is better to land them in an ordinary way.

Consider how, in this case, plant root seeds in open ground. With an ordinary method of sowing, the distance between the rows is 50-60 cm. The seeds are planted to a depth of 3-5 cm. The distance between plantings in a row is at least 25 cm. They are sprinkled with soil on top of the plantings. When planting in clay soil, it is necessary to loosen the ground, preferably with humus, but it is possible with sawdust soaked in Novoz.

Cultivation technology

After germination, it is necessary to thin out the shoots, leaving in the row the distance between the largest 20-25 cm. This is a prerequisite for the maturation of a healthy root crop.

Temperature

Planting is possible when the soil temperature reaches 5-8 ° C at a depth of 10-12 cm. Seedlings can appear on the 5th day at an average daily temperature of 15 ° C and after 12 days at 8 ° C.

Top dressing

After thinning the seedlings in the open field, it is necessary to add ammonium nitrate, the second time the feeding procedure should be carried out after half a month.

Watering

The plant needs regular watering, especially in the initial stages of development, stop which follows one month before harvest. When watering for light soils, the moisture content should be 75%, for heavy soils - 80%.

Important! There are two watering cans of 10 liters per square meter. The lack of moisture inhibits the development of beets.

Treatment of the land with herbicides against weeds

Before planting, it is necessary to treat the soil with herbicides to prevent weeds from emerging.

Other care measures

You need to know how to grow a root crop in order to get a good harvest. So for beets, loose soil is important, so it must be periodically loosened with a flat cutter, and for the first time this should be done two days after planting. Weeds should be weeded regularly, especially when the plants are small, otherwise there is a high risk of a large under-harvest.

Harvest

Usually the vegetable is harvested from the end of September to the second decade of October, necessarily before the onset of frost, otherwise it may freeze and be poorly stored. In industrial volumes, the root crop is harvested using potato diggers and potato harvesters, and in small volumes - manually using forks and shovels.

Root storage

Beets, peeled from soil and leaves, are placed in a cellar, basement or pit with a constant temperature of 3-5 ° C.

Diseases and pests

Cercosporosis, root beetle, peronosporosis, dull dead eater, powdery mildew, rust, various types of rot, miner fly, beet aphid, flea beetles, weevils, bugs, leafhoppers - this is not a complete list of diseases and pests that pose a threat to the development of culture.

Prevention of various problems

To avoid the accumulation of pathogens and pests in the soil the crop should not be grown on the same plot for more than two years in a rowThis is also facilitated by the introduction of mineral fertilizers and ash at the stage of soil preparation before planting, weeding and spraying with pesticides.

Feeding various animals with this beet

Both root crops and tops are used in the diet of dairy cows to increase milk and improve its taste, as well as other cattle, pigs, pigs, sheep, goats, rabbits, chickens, and other farm animals. Read about the peculiarities of the use of fodder beets by animals here.

Fodder beet is a product of great agricultural importance, not too demanding and rather unpretentious, but at the same time it is very useful for animals. With proper cultivation techniques, it gives high yields, so many villagers grow it, keeping cows, pigs and other animals.


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