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Tomatoes are one of the favorite plants of many summer residents, and the main task of each of them is to obtain a rich harvest.
All gardeners have their own ways and methods by which this goal is achieved, some fertilize tomatoes with organic matter, while others use mineral fertilizing.
This article will help you understand the variety of nutrients that supply the soil with all vitamins and trace elements before planting seedlings and contribute to obtaining a bountiful harvest.
Despite the fact that the planting of tomatoes is carried out in the spring, but the preparatory work should begin in the fall. Preliminary work takes place in several stages.
Choosing a place for the garden
Well-lit and warm areas are selected for planting tomatoes, where groundwater does not run close to the surface of the earth. Tomatoes cannot be planted in the same place for two years in a row., as this contributes to the depletion of the soil and an increase in its acidity level. It is better if the seedlings or seeds are planted in the place where they grew last season:
Attention! It is categorically impossible to plant tomatoes in the field after potatoes and other nightshades, since all these crops are attacked by the Colorado potato beetle and are affected by late blight.
In autumn, after harvesting, the land should be plowed or dug manually to a depth of 22 - 25 cm. In the spring, before planting a crop, the land is processed again: digging with a shovel or pitchfork. The soil prepared in this way is saturated with oxygen, becomes loose and soft; also, when digging, you can extract and destroy the roots of all weeds.
Preparation of planting material
Seedlings of tomatoes
- Seedlings grown at home must be "hardened": for some time (up to 15 - 20 days), the containers are taken out into the street, where they remain for a certain time (from 2 hours to 10 hours daily). The minimum hardening period is 3 days, but it is better to allocate more time to this stage: this will only have a beneficial effect on the adaptive abilities of young plants.
- 10 days before planting seedlings in open ground, watering should be reduced, and completely stopped a week before.
- But on the eve of the day of planting, young seedlings are watered abundantly with water.
- Before sowing seeds in the ground, they also need to be processed: the seeds are placed in a tissue bag and immersed for 15 - 20 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g of manganese per 1 tbsp. Of water), then washed with running water.
- The next step is to soak them for 12 hours in a nutrient solution (1 tsp nitroammophoska (nitrophoska) per 1 liter of water).
- Then for 24 hours - in clean water.
- After 1 - 2 days, the tissue bag is sent to the refrigerator (+ 1C- + 2C), where from time to time they need to be irrigated to avoid drying out.
What to put from organic matter?
Consider what is best to put in the hole when growing tomatoes from organic fertilizers, what is always at hand, from proven folk remedies.
Important! Three essential minerals for the normal development of tomatoes and future high fruiting - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
- Nitrogen is necessary for the plant during the period of its active growth, the lack of this element affects the formation of lateral shoots, their strength and color of the leaves.
- Phosphorus accelerates the development of the fruit, stimulates increased fruiting, promotes the active growth of the root system of the plant.
- Potassium also affects the development and quantity of fruits, their quality.
Manure is a natural fertilizer that is a source of trace elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, chlorine, silicon, which are necessary for the full development of tomatoes. Manure forms a fertile soil layer, it becomes loose, nutritious, the level of acidity decreases. There is no fundamental difference in the chemical composition of the manure of different animals. The plant will benefit from any of them.
Usually manure is collected in a certain place, where it is re-heated, covered with plastic wrap. In the fall, it is scattered over the garden plot (8 kg of mullein per 1 sq.m.), and in the spring it is introduced directly into the holes before planting.
Rotted manure (250-500 g) is introduced into the hole dug for tomatoes (depth about 50 cm), then a layer of earth, and only then, after 2 - 3 days, the seedlings are planted.
The use of fresh manure in the spring is not recommended due to its increased "aggressiveness"that can burn the root system of plants! For the same reason, roots and manure should not be allowed in the hole.
Compost is an organic fertilizer resulting from the decomposition of organic matter under the influence of microorganisms. Compost helps the soil to restore vitality, improves its structure, and increases fertile qualities. This effect can be achieved due to the fact that it contains such chemical elements as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and carbon, released during the decay process.
Reference! Compost is made from cut grass, fallen leaves, vegetable and fruit scraps, tea and coffee, eggshells, husks from seeds, straw, shavings, etc.
It is strictly forbidden to put in compost:
- diseased plants;
- thermally processed vegetables;
- citrus peel;
- feces of humans and cats, dogs.
When the compost becomes crumbly, slightly damp and looks like forest soil, it can be added to the planting holes (200 g per plant), mixing with the soil.
The onion peel, familiar to everyone, is often simply thrown away in the culinary process. In fact, this is a unique substance, the chemical composition of which includes:
- vitamin E;
- group B;
- nicotinic and ascorbic acids;
- kerotins, etc.
Most of the listed substances have antiseptic properties, but at the same time they favor the reproduction of beneficial microflora. therefore experienced gardeners do not get rid of onion husks, but add it in a chopped form to the holes (based on a handful of husks for 1 plant). This fertilizer is thoroughly mixed with the ground before being poured into the hole.
Wood ash is a miracle substance containing a large amount of essential elements for the growth and fruiting of tomatoes:
- phosphorus and others.
Ash not only provides the soil with essential nutrients, but is also an excellent means of protecting soil and plants from many diseases and pests.
Ash can be applied directly to the hole before planting seedlings (100g dry matter per plant). The soil dug out of the planting hole is mixed with fertilizer and the planted plant is covered with the resulting mixture.
Important! Ash must be a combustion product of plant residues!
Yeast is an environmentally friendly, unique product containing a large amount of vitamins and minerals:
- phosphoric acid;
They contribute to the supply of nutrients to the soil, contribute to the accelerated adaptation of tomatoes, their enhanced root formation, and increase the immunity of plants.
When planting tomatoes, a preliminary spill of yeast solution into the wells (for 1 day) will give a positive effect (20 g per 1 bucket of warm water, infused for 1 day). Up to 220 g of this liquid can be poured into each seat.
What mineral fertilizers need to be applied?
Mineral fertilizers are applied when planting a tomato only if organic fertilizers for some reason could not be applied.
- Superphosphate - mineral phosphorus fertilizer containing other useful microelements: magnesium, calcium and others.
The introduction of this fertilizer will increase the yield of tomatoes, improve their quality characteristics, improve the development of the root system of seedlings, and prevent many diseases.
The required dosage is 10-15 g (1 tbsp. L. Granules per one landing hole).
- Ammonium nitrate - mineral fertilizer, the predominant element in which is nitrogen.
This element is responsible for the set of green mass and plant growth.
It is enough to pour 1 tablespoon into the hole. granules. Another option: dissolve 30 g of the drug in 10 liters of water and pour it into the planting hole a day before planting tomatoes.
What complex fertilizers need to be added?
- "Kemira Universal" developed in Finland and licensed manufactured in Russia. The complex contains all the necessary nutrients and trace elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, boron, magnesium, manganese, zinc and others), which prevent the soil from being depleted. Each package of fertilizer is supplied with detailed instructions on the dosage of the drug, but most often about 0.5 - 1 tbsp is applied directly to the hole. granules, which are necessarily crushed by the earth, and only then the seedlings are planted.
This drug can be purchased at a price of 100-120 rubles per 100 g of the drug.
- Often experienced gardeners acquire complex fertilizers from the "Universal" seriescontaining in their composition various micro- and macroelements (the main dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), which have a general strengthening effect on plants, increase their resistance to adverse weather conditions, accelerate the processes of flowering, fruiting. The granules are applied directly to the well at the rate of 20 g per plant. Root contact with fertilizer is undesirable.
Estimated price - 450 - 500 rubles per package (5 kg).
It is not for nothing that they say that the most delicious tomatoes are those that are grown by hand. Various dressings that are pre-applied to the soil, during planting, or as the plants grow, can help to harvest an excellent harvest. What to pour into the hole is up to the vegetable grower to decide.
Fertilizing Tips for Tomatoes: