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Peking cabbage (Chinese cabbage) began to be grown in China, but is now becoming more common in other countries due to its high amount of vitamins and dietary properties.
This is what attracted buyers, including gardeners, who are trying to grow it both at home and in the beds. And this article will focus on the seeds of Peking cabbage. Namely: what varieties are there; where is it better to buy planting material; when is the best time to sow; necessary inventory. We will also tell you about possible problems when growing this popular vegetable.
Description of the vegetable
Peking cabbage leaves have an oblong shape and form a loose oval-shaped head of cabbage. Their color can range from yellow to bright green. Also, at the base, the leaves have a white vein extending to the end of the leaf. In the context, the head of Peking cabbage has a yellow-green color.
Peking cabbage can be grown from:
Each method has its pros and cons, but today we will talk specifically about planting seeds.
- Orange tangerine - early maturing, stress-resistant variety, suitable.
- Garnet - mid-season variety (the first harvest is harvested in 70-80 days), for cultivation in Siberia. Resistant to many diseases.
- Express - unpretentious, shows resistance to temperature extremes. Suitable for growing in greenhouses, also in Siberia.
- Wineglass - late variety (growing season lasts 70 days), demanding in care, more suitable for the southern part of Russia.
- Vorozheya - early ripening, high-yielding variety, resistant to shooting. But you can only use it fresh.
- Russian size F1 - a variety adapted to the climate of the middle zone. Differs in large size.
Where to buy?
Seeds can usually be found:
- in online stores;
- in supermarkets;
On a note. The cost starts around 10 rubles and goes up to 100, depending on the variety.
Advantages and disadvantages
- most purchased seeds do not require preparation (read on the package);
- Difficulty growing in the south due to likely shooting
- if the seeds are collected from domestic cabbage, then you need to sort them out and leave only larger than 1.5 mm;
- homemade seeds require careful preparation and dressing.
How to grow properly: step by step instructions
How do I do this?
The time of planting seeds in the ground depends on the variety of cabbage:
- leafy varieties - from late April to mid-June;
- head-forming varieties - from mid-July to mid-August.
If you plan to grow through seedlings, then they need to be sown at the end of March in separate pots.
Standard garden tools will come in handy:
- small spatula for pots;
- shovel for digging soil at the time of adding nutrients;
- a pallet in which peat tablets will be located;
- watering can.
Also, if you are going to plant seedlings, then it is most convenient to use peat tablets. Peat tablet - a cylinder made of dry peat with the addition of an antibacterial component, a growth stimulator and mineral fertilizers.
To prepare tablets for planting seeds, you must:
- The tablets must be placed in a tray, poured into the bottom of the water so that it saturates the tablets without deforming them, wait a little while the water is absorbed and pour in more.
- The tablets should increase in size.
Important! In case you want to use your soil, then use individual pots, not shared containers.
For sprouting Peking cabbage, the seeds are placed on wet gauze, removed to a warm place and wait for the sprouts to emerge, which should occur in 3-6 days. If they do not sprout, then you need to take other seeds.
If you bought seeds, then they do not require soaking. In the case of using homemade seeds, it is recommended to check them for germination:
- For this, the seeds are soaked in a saline solution for 17-19 hours.
- Suitable seeds float, empty ones go to the bottom.
The selected seeds are washed in clean water, placed in a wet cloth for swelling for 2-4 days.
Also, homemade seeds require dressing:
- To do this, the seeds are soaked in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 20-30 minutes.
- After soaking in such a solution, soaking in a growth stimulator, for example, "Epin" or "Zircon", is recommended.
If you are not going to use your pots and not peat tablets for growing seedlings, then the following mixtures are used to prepare the soil:
- mixing 2 parts of coconut substrate with 1 part of humus;
- mixing turf and sand in equal parts and add ash (1 teaspoon per liter of mixture);
- you can add mineral fertilizers: mix 1 tablespoon of superphosphate, 1 tbsp. potassium nitrate, 1 tbsp. l. ammonium nitrate.
If you do not want to use seedlings, but plant seeds directly in open ground, then you need to learn how to prepare the soil. If the soil requires liming, lime or dolomite flour must be added to it in the fall. In the spring, bring in a lead of compost or humus for each square meter.
- Peking cabbage does not survive well when planting seedlings, so it is better to plant seeds in separate pots with loose soil, 2-3 pieces each.
- The seeds are deepened into the soil by 1-2 centimeters.
- After that, the pots should be placed in a warm and dark place until shoots appear (how to grow Chinese cabbage at home?).
- After their appearance, the pots are taken out to a bright place in which the temperature does not exceed 7-9 degrees, if necessary, watered.
- After the leaves appear in each pot, only ONE strongest sprout is left, and the weak ones are pinched so as not to injure the roots.
- Seedlings are planted in a permanent place after 3-4 weeks.
From the video you will learn how to sow Peking cabbage:
Watering and feeding
- Peking cabbage loves moisture very much, so it needs regular watering.
- Top dressing is necessary, but the first fertilization is possible only two weeks after the seedlings are placed in a permanent place. You can use mullein infusion (based on 1 liter of infusion per 10 liters of water).
Note! 1 liter of solution is poured under each plant.
The amount of feeding with such fertilizer depends on the planting time: planted in the spring with the solution is watered three times, in the fall - twice, about once every 1.5-2 months.
- When sowing seeds in a seedless way, the soil is covered with a film until the first shoots appear.
How to plant in the beds correctly?
- If you use the seedless method, then the seeds should be planted in loose, moist soil in a bright area. It is not recommended to plant Peking cabbage seeds in places where tomatoes, beets, crucifers were previously grown due to common diseases.
- The holes must be placed at a distance of 10-15 centimeters when grown for salad, and when it is necessary to plant on heads of cabbage, the distance is increased to 30-40 centimeters. After planting, the soil is covered with a film until the first shoots appear.
- If you use the seedling method, then the transplant should be carried out when 4-5 true leaves appear.
- Peking cabbage seedlings are transferred into the ground together with the soil from the pot or a peat tablet, the shell of which will dissolve over time so as not to injure the roots.
- Before planting, the seedlings need hardening. Therefore, 10 days before planting, cabbage must be taken out into the street, gradually increasing the time.
On a note. Seedlings can be planted in open ground only after the cabbage has been outside for a day.
- The distance between the holes is the same: for salad - 10-15 centimeters, for heads of cabbage - 30-40 centimeters.
Watch a video on how to sow Peking cabbage in the beds:
From pests, you can find slugs and cruciferous fleas.
- Slugs can be ward off in several ways:
- bark obstacles;
- bait in the form of beer, citrus fruits, fermented milk products;
- special solutions.
- To combat cruciferous fleas, you can use:
- abundant watering of plants;
- a mixture of ash and tobacco dust in a 1: 1 ratio;
- a mixture of ash and slaked lime in a 1: 1 ratio;
- a mixture of ash and road dust in a 1: 1 ratio.
Most common diseases: keela, black leg, gray mold.
- Keela - a disease in which nodules form on the roots of cabbage. As a result, the plant stops developing. Keela is formed at low pH, so before planting in a permanent place, you need to neutralize it with compost and lime.
- Blackleg affects sprouts of Chinese cabbage seedlings. At the same time, blackening and narrowing of the stem is observed, which leads to difficulty in access of nutrients to the leaves, and then to the death of cabbage. To prevent it, you need to disinfect the soil and seeds, take care of the plant.
- Gray mold damages the head of Peking cabbage during the period of ripening or storage. To prevent the disease, it is necessary to spray the plantings with fungicides ("Amistar").
Peking cabbage is a capricious plant to care for, so before growing it is necessary to familiarize yourself with all the nuances, and during it, observe all precautions. But even such difficulties are worth growing such a nutritious plant.