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Pepper is a rather capricious culture that does not tolerate transplantation well. Planting unprepared seedlings at the wrong time and without observing certain rules will lead to a slowdown in the growth of pepper, and, ultimately, to a decrease in its yield.
That is why it is so important to follow the rules of how and when to plant seeds for seedlings and recommendations for planting pepper seedlings in open ground.
Next, we will describe in detail how to properly grow peppers in the open field?
When are peppers planted outdoors? Approximate dates
Even if the pepper seedlings outgrow, do not rush to plant it in open ground... This is a thermophilic culture, so it can be planted only when the threat of frost has passed and the air temperature at night will not drop below 13-15 degrees.
Usually such conditions occur somewhere around mid June (landing dates in the regions of Russia). But if suddenly after planting the temperature dropped for a while and there was a threat of frost, it is necessary to cover the plants at least temporarily with non-woven material or with the help of some other improvised means.
Age of seedlings ready to be moved outdoors, 60-65 days... Usually, the first bud appears on each bush.
All buds formed before transplanting are recommended to be removed. This usually happens in overgrown seedlings older than 65 days.
This procedure is necessary to stimulate new flowering and fruit formation. The fact is that a feature of this culture is undulating fruiting. Having set the first fruits, the plant stops flowering until they grow to marketable size.
Only then do new flowers begin to appear. If the first buds are not removed, the development of fruit formation will slow down..
Removing the first few buds will result in abundant leaf formation, which is beneficial for the pepper. Unlike tomatoes, a large number of leaves is only good for him, since it increases the yield.
Site selection and preparation
When choosing a landing site, it should be borne in mind that this heat-loving and very light-demanding culture... If it does not get enough sunlight the maximum time during the day, you will not get a good harvest. Therefore, any areas that fall into the shade of buildings or trees during the day should be immediately excluded.
It is also important protect the pepper from the wind, especially the northern one. Any, even the most temporary hypothermia during the day, is contraindicated for him. You should also not plant peppers in a draft.
The best precursors for pepper are cucumber, cabbage, carrots, onions, and zucchini. You can not plant it in those areas where tomatoes, eggplants or potatoes grew in the previous season.... In no case should he be planted in the same place for two years in a row.
This is due to the fact that during development, each culture consumes certain minerals, pulling them out of the soil.
And planting the same culture in one place will lead to the fact that each subsequent generation will not receive enough elements for nutrition, which means it will grow poorly.
For growing pepper suitable areas with light, low acidity soil... If the acidity is increased, it is recommended to lime it in the fall. For planting, high ridges are prepared so that the root system is warm. The direction of the ridges is west-east. When digging the soil in the spring, you need to add humus, compost and superphosphate to it.
Effective for growing peppers use a "warm bed" on biofuel... To prepare it, a trench 40-50 cm deep is dug. Manure mixed with chopped straw or compost must be placed on the bottom. A layer of soil is poured over this mixture.
A few hours before the planting of the pepper, the garden is watered with hot water, and the biofuel begins to generate heat. The roots of pepper in such a bed will be warm and will not even suffer from some cold snap. In addition, the bottom layer will serve as additional plant nutrition. Different varieties in the same garden.
IMPORTANT! You should not plant tomatoes and potatoes next to peppers, they are bad neighbors for him.
To prevent sweet peppers from becoming bitter
Pepper is a self-pollinated plant, and this must be taken into account when planting. If you plan on growing a bitter, sweet and pungent variety, plant them in different locations.... When they are planted close to each other, pollination will occur, and the taste of each variety will change. The sweet will start to taste bitter or spicy.
How to prepare seedlings?
Do not immediately take out the boxes of pepper and plant the peppers in the beds. If the seedlings were at home, they will not tolerate a sharp change in conditions and will die.
Before planting pepper in open ground seedlings need to be hardened.
Landing preparations begin two to three weeks before the expected date. Seedlings need to be taken outside for several hours a day and installed in a shaded place. In the early days, the walk should be short, only 3-4 hours from noon to 16 hours.
The time is gradually increased. Be sure to bring the seedlings into the house at night. For the last two to three days before disembarkation, leave the crates overnight, 24 hours a day.
IMPORTANT! Make sure that the direct rays of the sun do not fall on the seedlings so that the leaves do not get burned.
In addition to hardening, it is necessary to provide seedlings with protection from fungal diseases in advance. 7 days before disembarking it must be treated with a systemic fungicide (Bordeaux liquid, Copper sulfate, Oxyhom).
The day before removing from the box, the soil must be well watered.
How to plant pepper seedlings in the ground?
Planting pepper in open ground: planting scheme and recommendations.
- For planting peppers, prepare beds 80-100 cm wide.
- Wells with a depth of 15-20 cm are made at a distance of 40-45 cm from each other, 50-60 cm between rows.
- At the bottom of each hole, you need to pour a handful of well-rotted humus and pour at least 2 liters of water.
IMPORTANT! The size of its fruits depends on the scheme for planting pepper. If the bushes are planted at the distance described in the previous paragraph, there will not be very many fruits, but they will be large. Thickened planting (25X30 cm) will allow you to get a large number of medium or small fruits.
If each specimen was grown in a separate container, disembarkation is carried out by the transshipment method... Removing the plant along with a lump of earth, you need to try so that it does not fall apart. With this method of transplanting, the roots of the pepper will not suffer, therefore, the plant will quickly take root.
When growing seedlings in boxes, the roots of individual bushes may intertwine. Removing such plants from the ground, you are sure to damage the roots.
To protect the plants as much as possible from damage to the root system, longitudinal and transverse cuts are made to the full depth with a sharp knife in the box before planting.
The stem of each bush is buried in the soil to the same level at which it was in a box or pot. You cannot plant it deeper for two reasons:
- When planted deeply, the roots will fall into cold soil, and will also experience a lack of oxygen.
- The stalk of the pepper does not form additional roots, like a tomato. Therefore, a part of it caught in the ground may start to rot.
A plant with a lump of earth is placed in a hole. The soil is compacted. If the bushes are already tall, tie pegs next to them. As long as the stem is not thick enough, it can easily break in a gust of wind.
After planting, the plants are well watered, the soil around the stem is carefully mulched to prevent it from drying out. Humus or peat can be used as mulch. The next watering is best done in 1-3 days.so that the roots can take root and do not start to rot.
Disembarkation must be carried out in the eveningso that the sun does not burn the plants. For the same purpose, it is advisable to shade the plants in the first days after planting.
TIP! To mitigate the effect of stress when transplanting pepper into open ground, spray it a day before with a solution of Epin-extra. Carry out the same processing one day after disembarkation.
How to prevent hypothermia of plants?
It is impossible to delay planting pepper in open ground until the onset of stable warm days. There are two reasons for this:
- In the heat, the planted plants will not take root well and may even burn out.
- Overgrown bushes, on which buds have already begun to form, will drop them. And you will lose some of the harvest.
Therefore, the planting has to be carried out when the night temperatures are not yet ideal for the pepper. And the threat of return frosts exists almost until the end of June. Temporary shelters for planted peppers will help solve the problem.
For their preparation, arcs are placed over the bed and covered with a film or non-woven covering material. This method, in addition to heat, also makes it possible in the first days after planting to protect the seedlings from the scorching rays of the daytime sun.
The shelter, thrown on the arcs, is fixed along the bottom with heavy objects or sprinkled with earth. During the day, you need to open such a mini-greenhouse from one end.
ATTENTION! Do not open both ends of the tunnel cover at the same time on both sides. In this case, the plants will find themselves in a draft and begin to freeze.
A few days after planting pepper seedlings in the ground, when the plants take root, you can remove the covering material for a day. At night, it must be thrown over the arches again, since the night temperatures in June are not yet comfortable enough for pepper. When hot weather sets in, the temporary greenhouse can be dismantled and continue growing pepper in the open field.
Plant care in the first days after planting
Finally bushes will take root only 13-15 days after disembarkation, therefore, in the first days you need to pay maximum attention to them. In order for the pepper seedlings to take root well, you can help her by the following actions:
- Loosen the soil regularly around the pepper. This technique improves aeration of the roots and prevents rotting.
- Water the pepper every two days. and after watering, be sure to mulch the soil.
- Required shade the bushes in the midday heat... If the weather is hot and dry, surface water with warm water.
Compliance with all the rules for planting pepper in open ground and caring for it will contribute to the rapid rooting of seedlings, and, consequently, a large harvest.
Read other articles on pepper seedlings:
- Should the seeds be soaked before planting?
- How to grow black peppercorns, chili, bitter or sweet at home?
- What are growth stimulants and how to use them?
- The main reasons why seedlings stretch, fall and die.
- Rules for additional lighting and feeding of young seedlings.
Visual instructions for planting peppers in open ground: