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Growing tomatoes all year round is quite possible! To do this, it is necessary to equip a heated greenhouse and find time to care for the plants.
To get the first harvest for the New Year holidays, you need to sow seeds for seedlings in September or October. At this time, you will have to use additional lighting, because there will be very little natural.
When sowing seeds in November, the main development of the bushes will be in January and February, and the first fruits will be closer to spring. But the light period will begin to increase, allowing you to reduce the cost of artificial lighting.
How to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse all year round? For growing vegetables, and in particular tomatoes, you need a warm and bright greenhouse... It should be made of thick glass or polycarbonate with a thickness of at least 4.5–5 mm. It is not recommended to make greenhouses too high, in such places the heat will go up and accumulate in the ceiling area.
Around the perimeter must be equipped with thermal insulation from expanded clay to protect plants during severe prolonged cold weather. Frame lintels must be positioned longitudinally at a distance of 75–90 cm from each other. This design will help to avoid damage to the walls during heavy snowfalls.
A greenhouse for growing tomatoes all year round should not just stand on the ground! Its recommended set on a wooden platform from thick bars. In addition, it is required to make a concrete base, on top of which to lay the foam. Otherwise, the plants may freeze out when the soil is very cold.
The greenhouse must be equipped with good lighting and heating. For backlight usually sodium and fluorescent lamps are used... How to arrange a greenhouse on the site, read on our website.
In the fall, the room must be prepared:
- Clean the greenhouse from dirt and debris.
- Check all electrical appliances, plumbing, troubleshoot and repair.
- All disinfect surfaces solution of potassium permanganate. You can fumigate the room with sulfur bombs.
When choosing varieties, preference should be given to those that meet certain requirements:
- indeterminacy... Bushes can be allowed to grow upward, making the most of the area of the room;
- high productivity;
- early and very early periods of fruit ripening;
- excellent taste properties;
- high resistance to various diseases and attack by harmful insects;
- long keeping quality.
These varieties include: tomato tree Octopus, Malyshok, Annabelle, Dobrun, Flamenco, Pink Flamingo, Junior, Samara, Amber, Hurricane.
Hurricane - a high-yielding, early ripening variety. It is versatile in use, has excellent taste and a high content of vitamin C.
Amber - an ultra-early ripening, productive variety, very resistant to late blight and macrosporosis (see photo below).
Samara - indeterminate early ripening hybrid variety. The use is universal, high resistance to most diseases (see photo below).
Junior - ultra-early maturing, super-determinant hybrid. Differs in strong resistance to many diseases and excellent fruit taste.
Pink flamingo - early maturing, indeterminate variety. Produces delicious and shelf-stable tomatoes. The shelf life is about 60–70 days (see photo below).
Flamenco - early maturing, semi-determinant hybrid. The use of the fruits is universal, the taste is excellent, the yield is high. In addition, the variety is resistant to most diseases.
Dobrun - hybrid indeterminate variety with high disease resistance and excellent keeping quality.
Octopus - a unique variety of tomatoes that are grown on a tree. Differs in phenomenal productivity (see photo below).
Annabelle - indeterminate high-yielding hybrid. It is highly resistant to a whole range of diseases and root gall nematodes.
Baby Is an early maturing super determinant variety intended only for cultivation in a greenhouse. The hybrid is genetically resistant to disease.
Before planting seedlings, the soil can be replaced with a new one or the old one can be disinfected. For this potassium permanganate solution is used medium concentration. All soil is carefully spilled with it.
After the earth dries out, it is recommended to dig it up. At the same time, compost is introduced in an amount 1.5-2 buckets per square meter area. It can be replaced by the California worm family. Their activity will improve the porosity of the soil and will regularly enrich it with vermicompost.
It is also desirable to improve the soil with mineral fertilizers. For this, the following complex is being prepared:
- copper sulfate (5g);
- potassium magnesium (50g);
- ferrous sulfate (5g);
- potassium chloride (30g);
- double superphosphate (50g).
If you plant tomatoes after cucumbers, instead of compost in the ground sawdust should be applied or sphagnum peat.
Treating the land with fungicides will help prevent pest infestations.
How to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse in winter? Young sprouts are moved to the greenhouse only after they reach a height of 18–21 cm. Before that, they fed several times a mixture of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. In greenhouses, it is most convenient to use the tape planting method.
The distance between the ribbons should be at least 80 cm, between the plants about 55–65 cm. It is recommended to tie a rope or wire along the ribbon of the planted bushes so that the seedlings grow vertically. Form the correct bushes as they grow, carrying out timely pinching.
Indeterminate varieties are made in one shoot, the rest - in two. The tops of all extra stems are pinched off. It is also advised to remove all the lower foliage.
Optimum soil temperature is about 19ºC, air temperature - 23ºC – 26ºC. It is better to water before lunch., moisturizing the earth as it dries. With a constant moisture deficit, the development of the bushes stops, the ovaries and inflorescences begin to fall off. Loosening of the soil between the belts and under the bushes is carried out regularly, the entire period of plant life.
When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse in winter, top dressing is necessary. Without the constant introduction of mineral complexes into the ground, plants will cease to bear fruit and develop fully.
Feed bushes desirable every 13-15 days... To do this, use a mixture of ammonium nitrate (15g), superphosphate (40g) and potassium salt (20g).
Before the formation of inflorescences, a 0.6% concentration of the working solution is used, and then it is increased to 1%. Consumption rate - bucket of solution per square meterp soil. To ensure normal photosynthesis in artificial conditions, open containers filled with a mixture of mullein and water are required in the greenhouse. This will enrich the air with carbon dioxide, which is necessary for the process of photosynthesis.
When grown outdoors, the inflorescences are pollinated by bees. They are not in the greenhouse, so pollination have to produce by yourself... To do this, each brush with flowers is slightly shaken, and then gently watered from above from a watering can.
The yield of tomatoes in a greenhouse from 1 square meter per year can average 50 ... 55 kg.
With the right maintenance and creation of the most suitable conditions for plants from one bush you can collect from 11 to 24-26 kg of fruits... This figure varies depending on the variety.
Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse in winter is more difficult than growing in open soil. it requires financial investments and high physical costs... But the results can be achieved amazing!