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Scoop family: cabbage, potato, gamma, cotton

Scoop family: cabbage, potato, gamma, cotton



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Scoops are dangerous and malicious enemy of any gardener, florist and gardener. They spoil the fruit, reduce the quality of the crop, and destroy the entire plant. They can also be attributed to potato pests.

To fight them effectively, their features, external signs should be well studied, as well as methods of struggle.

Types of scoops

Gamma

She's a linen scoop, a rich woman - gamma and a metal liquid - gamma. Received the name for the drawing in the form of a Latin letter of scale on the front pair of wings.

  • What does it look like? The wingspan reach from 4 to 4.8 cm. The front wings are gray or brown with a purple or dark brown tint. They have a pattern in the form of double transverse stripes, as well as spots outlined with a thin mother-of-pearl border. The hindwings are monochromatic, yellowish-gray. There is a clear brown stripe along the edge.
  • Caterpillar... It has a thick body up to 4 cm long. The color is grassy green, the back is decorated with longitudinal sinuous yellow stripes. The green head has black lateral spots.
  • Chrysalis... The covers are dark brown, up to 2 cm long. The cremaster is in the form of a bulb, on the sides there are a pair of large hooks, on the back - 4 small ones.
  • Where is it found? Distribution - the European territory of Russia, Front and Central Asia, Western Europe, North America, Japan, North Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan and China.
  • Scoop gamma caterpillar photo below.

  • Features of the view... The flight lasts all warm times, starting in April and ending in November. Activity decreases at temperatures below 18 °. One female produces from 600 to 1600 eggs per season. For the development of eggs and larvae, high air humidity is required, at least 80% for eggs and 90% for caterpillars.

    Egg development lasts 4-8 days, larvae - about a month. The caterpillar goes through 4 molts and 5 generations. The next stage, the pupa, lasts from 7 to 14 days. It takes 25 to 45 days to complete full development.

  • During the season, it can develop from 1 generation in the north to incomplete 4 in the south. Pupae, adults, and larvae remain hibernating. To increase the population, a mild winter with a lot of snow is required.

  • What does it eat? The gamma scoop is a voracious polyphage. The larva eats ornamental plants, sugar beets, tobacco, hemp, mustard, flax, peanuts, sunflowers, corn, essential oil, vegetables and legumes. The number of plants that the caterpillar can damage includes more than 100 varieties.
  • What harm does it do? The imago does not damage plants, which cannot be said about the larva. Caterpillars of the gamma scoop are considered very harmful, since they very quickly eat all available plants, after which they move to other areas, continuing their destructive activity. When moving from one field to another, the larvae simultaneously eat the leaves of shrubs and trees.

Caterpillars devour the leaves, gnawing away all the tissues. They bypass only the largest veins.... Unripe fruits, unopened buds and inflorescences of crops often suffer.

Winter

She is a winter bat.

  • What does it look like? The wingspan varies from 3 to 4.5 cm. The front ones have a nondescript gray or brown color with brown scales. The pattern of spots and stripes is clearly drawn. A row of thick black streaks runs along the edge. Males are lighter than females. The hind wings of females are pale gray, along the edge there is a border of a darker shade, in males the color is pure white.
  • Caterpillar... In length it can reach 4 or 5 cm. The covers are gray with a greenish tint and strong shine.
  • Chrysalis... It is 2 times smaller than the larva, its length is 1.5-2 cm. It is colored brown with a red tint, there are two thorns on the cremaster.
  • Features of the view... Active flight occurs in May and occurs at night. One female can produce from 400 to 2.3 thousand eggs. The caterpillar goes through 5 molts and 6 generations. Young larvae of 1-2 instars leave for wintering.
  • Where is it found? The habitat is very extensive, covering Ukraine, most of Russia, including the Far East, Siberia and the Urals, Moldova, Transcaucasia, Belarus, Africa, Central Asia, Japan, Western Europe, China, Nepal and Mongolia.
  • What does it eat? The larvae of the first generations eat weeds, gnaw young seedlings, damage cotton and corn seeds.
  • Caterpillars older than the second generation feed on green parts of melons and vegetables, corn, millet, sugar beet, cotton and many other plants. The diet of the larvae includes more than 160 plant species.

  • What harm does it do? The winter moth is one of the most harmful caterpillars. One larva is capable of completely destroying about 12-14 cultivated plants during the night.

Cereal ordinary

  • What does it look like? A relatively large variety, with a wingspan reaching from 3.6 to 4.2 cm. The front wings are variegated, painted gray and brown, decorated with yellowish spots and transverse winding stripes. The dark streaks are clearly pronounced. Hind wings are monochromatic, grayish brown.
  • Caterpillar... Can grow up to 3.5 cm in length. The color is brownish-gray, with a light yellow stripe on the back.
  • Chrysalis... Length up to 2 cm, brick color.
  • Features of the view... The female produces from 300 to 2000 eggs, laying them one by one on the ears and the inner side of the leaves. Larvae of the last instars hide for wintering.
  • Where is it found? Lives in North America, steppes and forest-steppes of Russia, Western Europe, Belarus, Japan, Ukraine, Central Asia, Transcaucasia.
  • What does it eat? Cereals are especially fond of corn, barley, wheat, oats, rye. In addition, it damages some perennial grasses.
  • What harm does it do? Caterpillars eat grain at any stage of development - young, mature and dry.

It also belongs to granary pests, as it feeds on cereals not only in the field, but also in storage facilities.

Gnawing

She's an exclamation point... See the photo of the gnawing scoop below.

  • What does it look like? The wingspan ranges from 3 to 4.5 cm. The front ones can be painted gray, light brown or dark brown. The spots are dark, almost black, forming a pattern in the form of an exclamation mark. The hind wings are brownish in the female, lighter in the male.
  • Caterpillar... The covers are matte, gray or brown with a yellowish tinge. The head and breast are orange. Body length up to 5 cm.
  • Chrysalis... The size is 1.5-1.7 cm, the color is yellow-brown, there are two thorns on the cremaster.
  • Features of the view... The eggs are located on the ground and develop in 2 weeks. The larvae of the last generations hide for hibernation, in the spring they first feed, then pupate.
  • The flight of the imago begins in late spring.

  • Where is it found? Almost everywhere in Russia, Western Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Kashmir, North Africa and Tibet.
  • What does it eat? The caterpillar is a polyphagous polyphage that eats vegetables, grains, industrial and decorative crops. It feeds on sunflower, corn, winter wheat, potatoes, cotton, young shoots of woody plants.
  • What harm does it do? Caterpillars of all generations cause serious damage to crops and cereals, significantly reduce the quantity and quality of the crop.

Greenhouse

  • What does a greenhouse scoop look like? When unfolded, the wings reach 4 cm, the front ones are gray or almost white, have distinct spots of various shapes. The hind wings are monochromatic, light gray.
  • Caterpillar... The covers are matte, the color is gray with an earthy tinge. In adult larvae, a dark longitudinal stripe appears on the back.
  • Chrysalis... Brown, reddish tint.
  • Features of the view... Very high fertility - up to 3 thousand eggs from one female.
  • Where is it found? Almost everywhere, it lives in greenhouses, greenhouses and hotbeds.
  • What does it eat? Omnivorous polyphagous, can eat any plants on the way.
  • What harm does it do? The damage from the caterpillars is very serious, it damages not only the leaves, but also the fruits. Its activity drastically reduces the amount of the crop.

Cotton

A very common dangerous pest. Cotton scoop photo below.

  • What does it look like? The wingspan is up to 4 cm. The front ones are painted yellow-gray with a green and pink tint. The spots and stripes are dark gray. Hind wings light gray.
  • Caterpillar... The color can vary from milky white, green, yellow to black. The body is covered with small spines.
  • Chrysalis... Brick painted, length up to 2.2 cm.
  • Features of the view... Departure and subsequent flight are extended, so different generations develop at the same time. The butterfly years lasts from spring to November. The number of generations per season is from 2 to 5.
  • Where is it found? The range includes Asia, Australia, Africa, Europe, the islands of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean.
  • What does it eat? The diet includes over 350 varieties of plants around the world.
  • What harm does the cotton scoop do? Caterpillars in the amount of 5 pieces are capable of destroying 100 plants.

Cotton Asian

Quarantine pest.

  • What does it look like? The wings span up to 4 cm. The forewings are painted in a chestnut-gray shade, covered with a pattern of stripes and stripes, which fold into the number 4. The hind wings are light gray, almost white, translucent.
  • Caterpillar... It grows up to 4.5 cm. The body is brown, hairless, decorated with large black spots on the sides, and yellow and black stripes on the back.
  • Chrysalis... Light chestnut, size 1.9 cm.
  • Features of the view... Females place eggs on the inside of the leaves, covering them with their abdominal scales. Young larvae live and feed in groups, spreading out after the third molt. Caterpillars of the last generation leave for wintering. During the season, 4-8 generations can appear.
  • Where is it found? In the tropics of the Pacific Ocean, Australia and India. They are imported to Europe with various plants and containers. It can only live in warm areas.
  • What does it eat? Food preferences include decorative, nightshade, cereal and vegetable crops grown both outdoors and in greenhouses.
  • What harm is done? The larvae eat the generative parts and leaves of plants.

The population is capable of destroying up to 80% of the entire crop.

Agrippina

Scoop agrippina, she is agrippa and agrippina tizania.

  • What does it look like? The largest representative of the scoop, the wings reach 28 cm in span. The front and hind wings are light beige or gray in color and an intricate pattern consisting of spots, winding lines and stripes. A characteristic feature of males is a blue-violet color of the inner side of the wings with a metallic sheen.
  • Caterpillar... The body grows up to 16-17 cm, the color is presumably green, the integument is decorated with black large spots and light side stripes.
  • Features of the view... It is a rare, endangered species. Very little has been studied about the way of life.
  • Where is it found? In South and Central America.
  • What does it eat? A monophagus that is eaten by the cassia legume shrub.
  • What harm does it do? The caterpillar skeletonizes the leaves.

Pine

Pine scoop photo, see below.

  • What does it look like? Wings in span grow from 3 to 3.5 cm. The color of the front wings is very changeable, it can be red, white, red, gray, brown. The drawing is represented by spots, stripes, winding lines. The hind wings are dark gray, decorated with a small dark spot.
  • Caterpillar... The color of the integument changes as it grows from pale green and yellowish to dark green. There is a wide white line on the back.
  • Chrysalis... Covers are chestnut, shiny. Length - up to 1.8 cm.
  • Features of the view... Fly begins in March, with a peak in mid-spring. May end in June. Egg development lasts up to 2 weeks.
  • Pupae leave for the winter.

  • Where is it found? In any pine forests in Asia and Europe.
  • What does it eat? Buds, needles and young shoots of pine.
  • What harm does it do? Active eating of needles and gnawing of cavities inside the trunk leads to the death of trees. Damaged plants begin to wither and dry out.

Garden (orchard) scoops

Garden scoops - the name includes several typesthat cause serious harm directly to garden plants. These include cabbage scoops, potato scoops and tomato scoops. Garden scoop photo, see below.

Cabbage

  • What does it look like? Small moth, unfolded wings reach 4-5 cm. The anterior ones are covered with dark transverse stripes, they themselves are painted dark brown, the spot is white. The hind wings are monophonic, gray.
  • Caterpillar... Changes color as it grows - from greenish gray to dark chestnut. On the sides there are light yellow stripes, on the back there are many specks.
  • Chrysalis... Chestnut red, about 2 cm long.
  • Features of the view... Pupae of the second generation are sent for wintering. All developmental stages prefer to stay in high humidity conditions. Most often they live near water bodies. Caterpillars die during periods of drought.
  • Where is it found? Baltic countries, Central Asia, Russia, North America, Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Europe, Belarus.
  • What does it eat? Predominantly hay and cruciferous plants, but can eat most other crops, including vegetables, cereals and ornamental.
  • What harm does it do? Caterpillars eat up passages in cabbage heads and other fruits.

As a result, the quality of vegetables and the quantity of the crop are reduced.

Images on the topic: "Cabbage scoop photos" are present in the world network in large numbers. What does a caterpillar look like cabbage, see below.

Potato

She is marsh and spring lilac.

  • What does it look like? Small moth butterfly. The forewings are gray with a reddish, brown or yellow tint. They are covered with clear spots and stripes. The hind ones are yellowish-gray or pinkish.
  • Caterpillar... A faded gray color with a lilac or violet tint, the integument is matte.
  • Chrysalis... Standard size, brownish red.
  • Features of the view... Eggs remain for wintering, the development of which occurs in early spring. Caterpillar feeding begins in April and May and continues until the end of July.
  • Where is it found? Throughout Europe, including Russia and the CIS countries, in Central Asia, China, Kazakhstan.
  • What does it eat? Various herbs, corn, potatoes, strawberries, rhubarb, raspberries, onions, tomatoes and ornamental plants.
  • What harm does the scoop cause to potatoes? Caterpillars eat leaves, crawl inside thick stems and gnaw out the inner contents. The stems begin to dry out or rot.

As fruits appear, the larvae begin to feed on them, greatly impairing the yield.

Potato scoop photo below.

Tomato

She is Karadrina, small scoop, terrestrial and cotton leafworm.

  • What does it look like? The wingspan does not exceed 2.5 cm. The front ones are painted in a grayish-chestnut color, painted with double stripes across the wings and spots of orange color. The hindquarters are white with a slight pink tinge.
  • Caterpillar... The color is chestnut or green. The length of the body is up to 3 cm. On the back there are longitudinal stripes of hair, on the sides a dark stripe is superimposed on the yellow one.
  • Chrysalis... In length - up to 1.4 cm. The covers are shiny, have a yellowish-brown color. There are 4 thorns of different sizes on the cremaster.
  • Features of the view... The species has many development cycles. In the northern zones - 2-3, in the southern - up to 10. The female covers the clutch with eggs with gray hairs. Pupae remain for the winter.
  • Where is it found? In the Baltics, Transcaucasia, Russia, Moldova, America, Asia, Southern Europe, Africa, Ukraine.
  • What does it eat? The diet is very extensive, it consists of 180 types of crops. Favorites are mallow, legumes, haze, nightshade and bluegrass families.
  • What harm does it do? Caterpillars eat leaves, flower buds, buds and inflorescences, which significantly reduces plant productivity.

Tomato scoop photo below.

Conclusion

Scoops form the largest family squad Lepidoptera. Their representatives can be found almost everywhere, with the exception of only the coldest areas.

And the nocturnal lifestyle of not only butterflies, but also their caterpillars, complicates the timely detection of pests. But most of them pose a fairly serious threat to plants.

Useful video!


Watch the video: Beautiful Chinese Cabbage Farm and Harvest in Japan - Japan Agriculture Technology (August 2022).