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The olive is an evergreen plant, with oval dark leaves in the upper part and silvery green in the lower part, and greenish or black drupes from which the oil is extracted.
It is very cultivated, there are many specimens, mostly located in the Mediterranean area. It is a very resistant plant and can live even on less fertile soils and with only the nutrients the soil offers. Certainly if regularly fertilized, its production becomes of superior quality and even greater, attenuating the phenomenon of alternation. It is a plant that needs only two interventions a year, to be performed during the vegetative period, the first one is recommended to start it between February and March as it is the beginning of the vegetative restart while the second between the end of June and the beginning of July before fruiting. Before performing a fertilization it is advisable to perform the chemical-physical analysis of the soil in order to calculate the doses to be distributed of the different fertilizers. of the plant, the phosphorus that intervenes in the division of cells, in the development of the meristem tissue and in the growth of the roots and finally the potassium that regulates the metabolism of sugars, favoring their accumulation in the form of starch. Furthermore, we must also consider magnesium, calcium, iron and boron in small quantities. The ideal climate for this plant is temperate, with minimum temperatures not below 8 ° C below zero, especially when the olive is in a vegetative state. The altitude where it can be cultivated does not exceed 500-600 m.
Plant fertilization aims to increase biological fertility and the concentration of natural elements, to improve plant growth and consequently production. The administration of the fertilizer is carried out in spring and on firm soil. Subsequently it will be buried with deep plowing or with more superficial workings. Usually for this type of fertilization mature bovine or sheep manure or other organic elements are used, including pollen, compost, flour and other integrated with nitrogen or green manure which consists in burying the herbaceous plants in the soil in which they are grown to make it it is richer in organic substances.
Breeding fertilization is performed in the first three or four years after implantation and serves to accelerate the formation of the crown and the root system of the young plant. Depending on the age, the size that the olive reaches over the years and the underground development of the roots, the dose of fertilizer to be administered over the years is considered. The administration must be located at the projection of the foliage on the ground, the root development of the roots being limited. This type of fertilization must be exclusively nitrogenous with two or three administrations per year, starting from the vegetative growth period until the end of spring.
The fertilization of production must be practiced when the olive has completed the vegetative development and begins to bear fruit. This technique, in addition to inducing support for production, ensures a continuous renewal of the foliage and root system. Nitrogen production fertilization is advisable to divide it in two periods of the year only where an irrigation aid is provided; two thirds between February and March before the vegetative growth and the remainder between May and June before flowering. In the case of scarce pinking it is advisable to avoid the second fertilization so as not to stimulate the growth of the plant too much with the formation of sterile branches called suckers or suckers. Instead where possible it is preferable to administer a nitrogen fertilization in the periods in which intense rainfall is expected, for example late winter and early spring. The quantities of phosphorus and potassium already present in the soil sufficiently, generally make this type of cyclic fertilization every 4-5 years. The quantities of these substances can be verified with specific analyzes. In addition to phosphorus-potassium fertilization, always in a cyclical way magnesium can be administered if the need arises.
Foliar fertilization can be used side by side or in place of
spread fertilization, due to the two nitrogenous fertilizations to be carried out during the vegetative periods. It is usually used to resolve situations of strong defoliation due to cold weather or to compensate for deficiencies of microelements, such as boron. The deficiency of boron recognized by the symptoms present on leaves, shoots and drupes is advisable to ascertain it with leaf diagnostics or with a soil analysis. This fertilization carried out before flowering and during the hardening of the stone tends to cure this deficiency.